Believe it or not, the first cold fusion power plant is now available to pre-order. The E-Cat 1MW Plant, which comes in a standard shipping container, can produce one megawatt of thermal energy, using low-energy nuclear reactions LENR — a process, often known as cold fusion, that fuses nickel and hydrogen into copper, producing energytimes more efficiently than combustion. Has cold fusion — the answer to all our energy needs — finally made its way to market?
Since the s, there has been speculation that nuclear fusion might be possible at much lower temperatures Cold fusion catalytically fusing hydrogen absorbed in a metal catalyst. Ina claim by Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann then one of the world's leading electrochemists that such cold fusion had been observed caused a brief media sensation before the majority of scientists criticized their claim as incorrect after many found they could not replicate the excess heat.
Since the initial announcement, cold fusion research has continued by a small community of researchers who believe that such reactions happen and hope to gain wider recognition for their experimental evidence.
Early research The ability of palladium to absorb hydrogen was recognized as early as the nineteenth century by Thomas Graham. However, the authors later retracted that report, saying that the helium they measured was due to background from the air. After a brief period of interest by the wider scientific community, their reports were called into question by nuclear physicists.
Pons and Fleischmann never retracted their claims, but moved their research program to France after the controversy erupted.
Events preceding announcement Electrolysis cell schematic Martin Fleischmann of the University of Southampton and Stanley Pons of the University Cold fusion Utah hypothesized that the high compression ratio and mobility of deuterium that could be achieved within palladium metal using electrolysis might result in nuclear fusion.
Current was applied continuously for many weeks, with the heavy water being renewed at intervals. These high temperature phases would last for two days or more and would repeat several times in any given experiment once they had occurred.
The calculated power leaving the cell was significantly higher than the input power during these high temperature phases. Eventually the high temperature phases would no longer occur within a particular cell. Fleischmann and Pons and co-workers met with Jones and co-workers on occasion in Utah to share research and techniques.
During this time, Fleischmann and Pons described their experiments as generating considerable "excess energy", in the sense that it could not be explained by chemical reactions alone.
Jones, however, was measuring neutron flux, which was not of commercial interest. Its discovery 30 years earlier had also been unexpected, though it was quickly replicated and explained within the existing physics framework. PetersonFleischmann and Pons, backed by the solidity of their scientific credentials, repeatedly assured the journalists that cold fusion would solve environmental problems, and would provide a limitless inexhaustible source of clean energy, using only seawater as fuel.
The first paper submitted to Nature reproducing excess heat, although it passed peer-review, was rejected because most similar experiments were negative and there were no theories that could explain a positive result; [notes 1]  this paper was later accepted for publication by the journal Fusion Technology.
Nathan Lewisprofessor of chemistry at the California Institute of Technologyled one of the most ambitious validation efforts, trying many variations on the experiment without success,  while CERN physicist Douglas R.
Morrison said that "essentially all" attempts in Western Europe had failed. The Times called it a circus the same day, and the Boston Herald attacked cold fusion the following day.
At the end of the session, eight of the nine leading speakers stated that they considered the initial Fleischmann and Pons claim dead, with the ninth, Johann Rafelskiabstaining.
Koonin of Caltech called the Utah report a result of "the incompetence and delusion of Pons and Fleischmann," which was met with a standing ovation.
Morrisona physicist representing CERNwas the first to call the episode an example of pathological science. Nuclear fusion of the type postulated would be inconsistent with current understanding and, if verified, would require established conjecture, perhaps even theory itself, to be extended in an unexpected way.
The panel was against special funding for cold fusion research, but supported modest funding of "focused experiments within the general funding system.
Salamon, a physicist from the University of Utahand nine co-authors reported negative results.Read this title for free and explore over 1 million titles, thousands of audiobooks, and current magazines with Kindle Unlimited. INFINITE ENERGY is the international magazine for Cold Fusion and New Energy Technologies.
It is a technical magazine with outreach to the general public, providing material of interest to all people. It includes some highly technical papers and patents.
It also includes non-technical articles and news on developments in the field, as well as the social, political, and economic implications of. It was the most notorious scientific experiment in recent memory – in , the two men who claimed to have discovered the energy of the future were condemned as imposters and exiled by their peers.
It was the most notorious scientific experiment in recent memory – in , the two men who claimed to have discovered the energy of the future were condemned as imposters and exiled by their peers.
A library of papers about cold fusion. This site features a library of papers on LENR, L ow E nergy N uclear R eactions, also known as Cold Fusion. (CANR, C hemically A ssisted N uclear R eactions is another term for this phenomenon.) The library includes more than 1, original scientific papers reprinted with permission from the authors and publishers.
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